The Traveler by Logan Zillmer
Logan Zillmer creates surrealistic photo project, where he tends to hide some interesting ideas and questions. His new project “The Traveler” surrealistically shows us the ambition of the men, the glory of dynamic travel life.
260 - 270 Million Year Old Fossils from the Sukhona Formation (Russia)
Clarify the Origins of Wasps:
Hymenoptera descended from the earliest Alderflies, during the Permian
299 - 252 million years ago, the Permian period ended the Paleozoic Era. The continents moved together and formed a single supercontinent (Pangaea). A very dry time, the swamps of the Carboniferous disappeared, replaced by deserts.
Several important insect groups appear for the first time in the Permian fossil record, including the orders Coleoptera (beetles) and Hemiptera (the “true bugs”).
At the end of the Permian, the largest mass extinction (and the only mass extinction that included insects) the Earth has ever seen took place, the Permian–Triassic extinction event. 30% of all insect species became extinct.
- Permian beds exposed along the Sukhona River near the site where some of the new fossils have been found. Credit: Dr. Dmitry Shcherbakov
- Fossil xyelid. This most archaic wasp family, the oldest fossil Hymenoptera, has changed little in the past 240 million years. Credit: Dr. Dmitry Shcherbakov
- Fossil snakefly. This looks like its present-day kin, but bears a more primitive egg-laying organ. Credit: Dr. Dmitry Shcherbakov
Wasps, bees, ants and their relatives make up the very diverse insect order Hymenoptera. With over 150,000 recognized species, they are the third most speciose animal group on Earth.
All four most diverse orders of animals (beetles, butterflies, wasps, and true flies) belong to the group of insects with complete metamorphosis - moving from larva to pupil to adult - jointly known as Holometabola.
Coleoptera (beetles) include more described species (400,000) than any other order.
Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies, come in second, with more than 174,000 already described species.
By way of comparison, there are only 64,000 species of vertebrate animals like us.
Other holometabolans are lacewings, alderflies, dobsonflies, snakeflies, scorpionflies, fleas, and caddisflies. Hymenopterans are currently regarded as a very old lineage ….Continue reading …
The journal article being reported on here is open access and can be found in the journal Zookeys.
Photo by Zach Frailey (New Bern, NC); Assateague Island, VA